The adage, “You never have a second chance to make a first impression,” applies to school professionals who want to establish good relationships with the families they serve. For a parent from a diverse community, the typical challenges are often compounded by differences in language, culture, and traditions. The first contacts provide the opportunity for the family to view the school experience as positive and responsive. The following tips are designed to help you create and maintain effective partnerships with families, leading to increased parent involvement, and ultimately better outcomes for children.
This list is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide examples of community organizations that may collaborate with you in your effort to reach parents of young children from diverse communities who have concerns about their child’s development. While this list targets specific Twin Cities metro-area organizations, many of the organizations may also provide information and referral to local resources in Greater Minnesota. The category headings in the list serve as a checklist of the types of organizations and locations you may want to consider in your local community outreach.
List of ten strategies and tips for effective community-based collaboration efforts for outreach to families from diverse cultures who may have a young child with a disability.
Achieve The Plan Game - for School Staff
This fun and easy-to-play game will guide your staff along the path to “Achievement City.” Players will learn of shortcuts to their parent involvement goals and discover some traps to avoid along the way. This great conversation starter will provide ideas to improve your school’s parent involvement.
National Researched-based Practice Guides & Tools for Engaging Families from Diverse Cultures
This compilation of family engagement resources is a representative list of research-based practice guides and tools, particularly those which address the interests and needs of educators. The list is not exhaustive, and inclusion on this list is not an endorsement of the particular resource. The publications are arranged in order of the date of publication.
State Support Network (2018)
This resources provides an overview of evidence-based strategies that schools and districts may use to promote equitable family engagement practices. It includes summaries of research on the topic and examples of school and district practices.
National Association of Elementary School Principals (2016-17)
Hanover Research (2016)
This report examines literature and case studies of engaging diverse families in public, K12 settings, with a particular focus on large, urban school districts, and the experience of African American and Hispanic families.
Schools Moving Up v2 (2014)
An interactive webinar with Karen Mapp, Senior Lecturer at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, describing what educators need to do to reach all families and embed family engagement in all school and district systems.
PTO Today (2014)
This online article explains ways in which language barriers can effect parental participation in school activities and how to overcome these obstacles.
Academic Development Institute / Center on Innovation & Improvement (2011)
Topic 12: Bridging Language and Culture, by Patricia Gándara, pgs. 117-120
Topic 13: Minority Families and Schooling, by Susan J. Paik, pgs. 121-124
Topic 15: Families of Children with Disabilities: Building School-family Partnership, by Eva Patrikakou, pgs. 131-134
(Includes practice guidelines)
National Association of School Psychologists, Communiqué Handout, 38 (6) (2010)
Includes characteristics of culturally responsive and collaborative home-school environments, key strategies to enhance collaboration, and summary.
Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Los Angeles, CA, and National Education Association, Washington D.C. (Report based on the Ethnic Minority Parent Engagement Summit in Los Angeles, CA)
This report provides best practices for engaging ethnic minority parents, including African Americans, Latinos, American Indians, Asian Americans and other racial, ethnic, and minority communities. It identifies dynamics that hinder parental engagement, successful strategies that strengthen parental engagement, and provides recommendations for improving state and national parental engagement policies.
The Parent Institute, Fairfax, VA (2010)
This report summarizes what the Parent Institute has learned about effective parent involvement in the past 20 years. It includes “9 Truths” about parent involvement.
National Center for Family and Professional Partnerships, Family Voices, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (2009)
Handbook on one approach to family engagement: using community liaisons and cultural brokers to reach families of diverse backgrounds.
30(4), 65-66 (2009)
This article offers a definition of parent involvement, parent engagement, and parent empowerment, and explains that some forms of involvement, especially in the case of linguistically, culturally, and economically diverse families, may go unrecognized by schools. The article discusses five categories of ways in which parents and families may be involved in their children’s education that go beyond the traditional forms.
NASP Communiqué, Vol. 36(8) (2008)
This column is intended to raise awareness of the issue and to enhance competencies of school psychologists in their work with students and families from CLD backgrounds.
Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX (2008)
This article addresses the question: What can I do to ensure that culturally responsive engagement takes place? It shares effective and proven strategies used in schools that serve a diverse student body, particularly at the secondary level.
RTI Action Network, a project of the National Center for Learning Disabilities (2007-2008)
Provides information to schools about cultural competence, why it’s important, and how to ensure effective collaboration with culturally and linguistically diverse communities.
A strategy brief with recommendations for increasing school and family connections for families from diverse backgrounds. Contains practical steps for putting these recommendations into practice at the school level, related research, and other resource books on this topic.
NAEYC, Washington, D.C. (2005)
Recent research indicates that teachers believe they have not been adequately prepared to teach children from cultural and linguistic backgrounds different from their own and that they need to learn more specific skills to do so. Four innovative teacher training programs are highlighted. Includes recommendations for preparing teachers, including enhanced faculty dispositions and willingness to adapt and change; required student practicums in diverse settings; integration of significant diversity content in all coursework; and required ESL courses for teachers.
The American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (2002)
This booklet explores culturally biased beliefs many educators frequently have toward their students and their students’ families, including misconceptions. It also explores ways educators and parents can work together to benefit students. This paper is meant to help professionals develop an understanding of culturally responsive parental involvement.
Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (2000)
This guide introduces seven steps for engagement, including: know your community, identify issues, designate facilitators, train facilitators, recruit participants, locate meeting sites, handle logistics and follow up with participants. Includes suggested activities. Available in Spanish.
Teaching Tolerance.com, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center
Brief article with tips for how teachers and administrators can welcome and communicate with culturally diverse parents and examples of how teachers were able to successfully reach out and overcome the barriers to engagement. Video interviews included.
Family Support Council, Ohio Developmental Disabilities Council
Self-assessment tool created to help organizations evaluation whether their services or agency is family friendly at all operational levels.
Immigrants, New Americans and Families of English Language Learners
Education Week Spotlight, June 2017
This issue focuses on ways that schools can build meaningful relationships with families and their communities and features articles such as “Home-School Connections Helps ELLs and Their Parents” and “Parents Are Partners (Even if they Miss Back-to-School Night).” The article includes a list of tips for parent leaders.
PTO Today (2014)
This is an online article about a local PTA leader’s attempt to connect parents from immigrant communities with their local school by breaking down the barriers that prevented them from engaging. The article includes a list of tips for parent leaders.
Minnesota Compass (2014)
Brief overview and statistics by group (Hmong, Mexican, Somali and Vietnamese)
Colorín Colorado! (2011)
This guide provides 20 big ideas to help schools create a new ELL family engagement plan.
The Minneapolis Foundation (2010)
This report summarizes a study commissioned by the Foundation to lay out immigration facts and pose unanswered questions. It forms the groundwork for informed, constructive discussion on immigration-related programs and public policies in Minnesota.
Theory Into Practice, 49, 106-112 (2010)
Engaging parents as advocates for school success in the home is particularly important for English Language Learners (ELL). Tapping into the experiences of ELL parents in their own lives about schooling and literacy is a resource educators can use to increase parental involvement. This article describes the stories of two parents and compares their experiences with schools, their personal views of literacy, and how the home environment might support school literacy and academic success.
Practitioner Brief of the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (2008)
This policy brief discusses barriers to engagement with the school for parents of ELL students, and concrete suggestions for overcoming them.
Arizona State University (January 2008)
This policy brief analyzes factors related to the implementation of effective parental involvement with English Language Learners (ELLs), including characteristics of the ELL student and parent population; barriers to family engagement with schools; and traditional and non-traditional parental involvement models.
Bridging Refugee Youth & Children’s Services Spring 2007 Spotlight (2007)
This article discusses some of the barriers that immigrant and refugee families face when engaging with their child’s school, including cultural differences, language barriers, educational levels, and logistical considerations. It includes specific recommendations to address these barriers.
Minnesota State Demographic Center (2000)
(Search under publications by date and topic “immigration”)
Contains immigration dates, history of immigration to U.S. and Minnesota, non-English speaking students, and population maps by group.
Multicultural Families of Children with Disabilities
National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities (Clemson University, 2012)
This monograph explores the problem of high school dropout rates among American Indian, African American, and Latino males with disabilities. It provides an in-depth look into the specific obstacles that impede this young population from graduating, while offering direction and articulating crucial changes that must be made to better serve these students.
National Technical Assistance Center on Transition (2017)
List of strategies for parent engagement and cultural diversity that schools can use to help with school completion for males with disabilities from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds.
This guide provides information about ways that staff can support culturally and linguistically diverse families and student in the transition process. It also discusses perspective barriers and contains a list of resources.
Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(5), 52-58 (2002)
This article contains practical suggestions for schools (teachers and administrators) to help overcome the main barriers for immigrant groups to participate, including language barrier, lack of information, teachers learning about culture, effect of parent’s negative educational experiences, unfamiliarity with U.S. educational system, and differing views on parent involvement.
ERIC and Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA. (2001)
Looks at initial identification, referral, evaluation, assessment and development of the IFSP and IEP for young children.
Professional School Counseling, 16, 185-193 (2013)
The Hoover-Dempsey et al. (2005) model of parents’ involvement in their children’s schools has recently been applied to Latino immigrant families. This article reviews that literature and then describes culturally appropriate strategies for school counselors to work with this population, focusing on teacher and counselor invitations to the family; parent and partnership-focused role construction; and flexible formats for involvement that respect families with limited time. The article includes a sample Latino family night program.
NBC Latino. (2012)
This is an online article that describes the barriers to Latino parent engagement. It contains a short description of two programs that are taking steps to increase the involvement of Latino parents by identifying these barriers and finding ways to overcome them.
NASP Communiqué, Vol. 37(4) (2008)
Contains the following sections: General characteristics and demographics of the U.S. Latino population; identity development and acculturation; general family beliefs regarding mental health and disabilities; communication styles; strategies to increase Latino parent participation in the schools; and suggestions for cross-cultural collaboration or advocacy.
African American Families
Online Publications of Undergraduate Studies, Department of Applied Psychology, New York University (2014)
The purpose of this review is to shed insight into a more culturally sensitive conceptualization of parental involvement by furthering our understanding of how black parents may seek to promote their children’s academic achievement, especially in light of the suggestion made by current literature that black parents are less involved in their children’s academic lives than they actually are.
ISAAC (Institute for the Study of the African American Child), Wayne State University, Vol. 1(2) (2010)
A case is made for teachers and administrators to understand how to build effective engagements with African American families and communities without prejudging the sociocultural practices, mores, experiences, daily realities, and historical memory of this community. We provide culturally sensitive, responsive, and community appropriate strategies for teachers and administrators to more effectively engage African American families and communities for the betterment of African American learners.
American Counseling Association, Alexandria, VA. (May 1, 2012)
This article reports on a focus group study on perceptions about parent involvement of a small group of African American women. The conclusion drawn from the group's participants was, “The mothers in this study said school counselors should take a more proactive role in helping African American children and their families in advocating for equality in the schools.”
Intervention in School & Clinic, 45(2), 85–90 (2009)
The authors look at a variety of factors that may explain why many African American parents are reluctant to engage with school administrators and teachers, and they offer practical solutions for schools to encourage family participation. The strategies presented address the academic needs of these students, the concerns of their parents, and the challenges facing schools.
NASP Communiqué, 37(3). (2008)
Contains sections on background on black families, communication styles, help-seeking behaviors, attribution of handicapping condition, and suggestions for effective intergroup collaborations with black clients.
Harvard Family Research Project, Boston, MA. (2006)
This research report compares African American and Chinese-American parent involvement. In particular, it focuses on each group’s involvement orientations and examines how they identify and activate resources to support their participation.
Includes a summary and other resources on the topic.
Native American Families
National Caucus of Native American State Legislators, Education Committee (2008)
This report is the result of a commissioned study on the academic performance of American Indian, Alaskan Native and Native Hawaiian students and policy recommendations for State legislators compiled by the NCNASL. It contains a section on “Strengthening Parent, Family and Community Support” on pages 25-28.
State Advisory Council on Indian Education 2004 Report to the State Board of Education. (2004)
This report contains a chapter on Family Involvement in Education on pages 38-48.
Star Tribune, Minneapolis, MN (2013)
This article discusses parental advocacy, cultural perceptions of disability, and mistrust of government services.
Minnesota Historical Society Press (2012)
This is a great primer to learn more about Somali culture. It is very easy to read and well-structured.
Canadian Multicultural Education Foundation, Alberta, Canada (2012)
Helpful sections in this large document include: A guide for educators on understanding Somali culture and immigration; connecting your school with the Somali community; and lesson ideas to use with Somali immigrants around identity and their immigration experience.
American School Board Journal, Vail, CO. (2008)
The article talks about a school district in Lewiston, Maine, and the challenges it faced in meeting the needs of a large influx of Somali refugee students, especially with regards to finances and ELL instruction. It also discusses the role of Somali parents in their children's education.
National Association of School Psychologists Communiqué Online, Washington, D.C.
Provides information on the history of Somali immigration and refugee status, the role of religion on culture, family practices and values, stressors for refugee children, and cultural entry experience and implications for school psychology.
American Council of Catholic Bishops, Washington, D.C.
An excellent compendium of resources for Somali youth, parents, and professionals.
MN Historical Society (2004)
Brief interview with Abdisalam Adam, Somali resource teacher in the St. Paul Public Schools.
Bildhaan, 11, Macallister College, MN. (Feb. 20, 2010)
Contains a research study about why Somali parents chose charter schools in Minnesota, the factors that influence their educational decision making, and what they consider to be a priority for their child’s education.
Family Engagement (General)
A useful teacher-parent partnership process that aims to forge a three-way relationship between teachers, parents and their children through a creative approach to homework. This tool was developed by the John’s Hopkins Center National Network of Partnership Schools.
PTO Today (2014)
This is an A-Z list of best practices for building parent engagement.
PTO Today (2013)
An article from PTO Today.com that describes the steps that parents and administrators can take to assess how welcoming their school is to parents and other visitors. It includes a checklist for “How to Evaluate Your School” and “Ideas for Creating a Welcoming School.”
AMLE (Association for Middle Level Education) Magazine (September, 2013)
This article reviews the lessons learned from a study of policy and practice in middle schools. The findings should help other educators improve school, family, and community partnership programs that contribute to student achievement and success in school.
Education.com (May 1, 2013)
This article offers research-based advice and resources designed to help schools and districts foster successful parent involvement.
A two-page summary of the school and teacher version of The Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler Model of Parental Involvement.
Resources and publications include:
- The Family Involvement Storybook
Uses children's storybooks with family involvement themes to engage families in their children's education while also supporting literacy development.
- Dr. Heather Weiss talks about the findings of research on low-income mothers’ involvement in their children’s education and its implications for education policy and practice.
- Preparing Educators to Involve Families
Contains a series of research-based teaching cases stemming from HGRP’s research and others' studies of low-income children. Book is available for purchase from Sage Publications.
- How can we prepare teachers to work with culturally diverse students and their families? What skills should educators develop to do this successfully?
- The Family Engagement for High School Success Toolkit
Designed to support at-risk high school students by engaging families, schools and the community.
- Family Engagement and Children with Disabilities: A Resource Guide for Educators and Parents
The Harvard Research Project groups resources into three categories, including families as advocates, family roles in assessment and intervention, and families as partners in student learning, and provides a selected list of resources for educators and families.
A guide for parents to learn the key things their child will learn in English/literacy and math in kindergarten through high school, ideas for activities to help your child learn at home, and topics of discussion for talking to your child’s teacher about his or her academic progress.
Local, State and National Family Engagement Initiatives
ConnecticutConnecticut School-Family-Community Partnerships: Ten Steps to Success for Developing Title I Family School Compacts
Title 1 parent involvement resources, including planning tools for districts and educators.
PACT (Parent And Child Time)
A strategy used by schools to provide parents the opportunity to learn and practice teaching techniques for use during home learning. Each session is divided into three parts: a brief workshop, a practice period with their child, and a debriefing period.
MassachusettsParker School officials battle history to make parents partners in kids’ education
South Coast Today (May 18, 2014)
A report on the outreach efforts undertaken by an underperforming school district in an effort to increase parent engagement. Discusses some of the barriers to parent engagement and reasons that parents may not already be involved. This initiative is one of several efforts being made by the school to increase student achievement.
MichiganCollaborating for Success - Parent Engagement Toolkit
A comprehensive, research-based resource that includes pertinent and practical information, proven strategies, and tools to assist school professionals and parents in enhancing parent engagement efforts. Materials are available in Spanish and Arabic, and address ways to engage parents from diverse backgrounds in “Strategies for Strong Parent and Family Engagement, Parts I, II, & III.”
MinnesotaOffice of Student, Family and Community Engagement
Outlines six key areas of parent best practices that contribute to children’s academic success: high expectations, structure, learning, support, relationships, and modeling.
MissouriParent Involvement Resource Toolkit
Toolkits available containing list of resources and links to publications and organizational websites for educators and parents. List of resources include both local, state, and national groups.
OhioOverview of Family and Community Support Programs
OregonA Virtual Tour of our Family Friendly Partnership School
The page contains information and tools to help schools effectively engage families and meet the family engagement requirements of Title IA. Includes sample parent engagement plans, templates and best practice guidelines and troubleshooting assistance when creating a parent engagement plan.
Lincoln Journal Star (May 2, 2014)
New MexicoWorking Together: School-Family-Community Partnerships (A Toolkit for New Mexico School Communities)
New Mexico Public Education Department and the Center for the Education and Study of Diverse Populations, New Mexico Highlands University (2006)
A framework and resource rich toolkit designed to support sustainable family engagement initiatives that build capacity among educators and families to partner with one another around student success.
(Info regarding working with diverse families is on pages 43, 64-65, 69, 95-97, 322-323, 364, & 367; ELL: pages 105-106)
This is the website for the North Carolina State Improvement Project, which provides personnel development and program support services to significantly improve the performance and success of students with disabilities in North Carolina. Includes info for parent on how to support their child in math and reading instruction.
Tennessee State Personnel Development Grant (n.d.)
Resources for educators, parents and other professionals on parent engagement, including videos, literacy toolkits, and downloadable publications.
VirginiaTips and Strategies for Increasing Parent and Family Engagement in Virginia Schools (Improving Student Achievement and Outcomes through Parent and Family Involvement)
Virginia Department of Education and the Center for Family Involvement at the Partnership for People with Disabilities at Virginia Commonwealth University
Suggested tips and strategies for effective family engagement based on the results of a parent survey filled out by over 1,000 parents, teachers, and school administrators across Virginia.
In partnership with the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) and the Partnership for Persons with Disabilities at VCU, PEATC, developed easy-to-understand factsheets on Reading Literacy
WashingtonThe Family & Community Partnership Office: Be Informed, Be Prepared, Be Involved
This webpage provides the district’s core information resources (Partnership 101 booklet and video) for facilitating discussion between parents with teachers; parents and their children; family liaisons and teachers; and parents with each other.
Multicultural Partnerships: Involve All Families
Eye on Education, Inc. (2012)
This books provides a step-by-step approach on how to increase parent involvement – including immigrant and refugee parents – in their children’s education at school and at home. The book contains a summary of current research on this topic, important logistical considerations, and an array of activities that support the creation of a multicultural school that welcomes all families, respects differences, and honors their common goals for student success.
Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships
The New Press, New York, NY (2007)
Refer to Chapter 6: Addressing Differences: How Can You Deal with Issues of Race, Class and Culture?
Webinars / Videos
The webinar offers tools and guidance on ways to develop rich partnerships with diverse families and community members. The session explored the following questions, and featured school and district strategies to address and embrace diversity in ways that enable partnerships among home, school, and community: What must be considered when cultivating partnerships with families and community members from diverse racial, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds? How do we build “cultural competency” among our school and district staff? Who is responsible to lead this work?
ASCD Express, Vol. 6, No. 16. Copyright 2011 by ASCD (2011)
A six-minute video with tips and strategies for involving groups of diverse parents.
Organizational Websites with Parent Engagement Resources
- Center for Family Involvement at the Partnership for People with Disabilities at Virginia Commonwealth University